Discussion paper for the Environment Foundation and 21st Century Trust, Sustainability and Democracy Event


Ian Christie sets out four conflicting propositions: democracy is crucial for humane and just development; democracy poses huge problems for sustainable development; sustainability NGOs have been a massive success; sustainability NGOs are also a massive failure by their own standards.

He argues that one solution is to move beyond the focus on the nation state to create in effect a People’s Kyoto – where NGOs, businesses and local governments work together to tackle global warming with carbon reduction commitments – in a parallel framework which could out-compete nation states and spur the latter to action.

Ian Christie, July 2007

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